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Ion Implantation

Started - 7/29/1996
Updated - 2/16/2014
Ion implantation is used to alter the surface properties of semiconductor materials.  
 

 

Semiconductor Tutorials

How Semiconductors Work 

Semiconductor Tutorials - American Microsemiconductor, Inc

What is a semiconductor? - A semiconductor is a material that behaves in between a conductor and an insulator.

A semiconductor is a material that is an insulator at very low temperature. - From Wikipedia.

Electrical Engineering Training Series  A set of articles on Semiconductors and Transistors

Ion Implantation 101 - Applied Materials

Microelectronic Processing and Fabrication
- APlusPhysics

Accelerators for Society  - Accelerators in various forms are used for a wide range of tasks in the production or preparation of many different end products.

Semiconductor Tutorials

Robots

Wafer Disk

 

  Ion Implantation - General Principles - Wikidoc.org

 


The NV10 Ion Implanter
NV10- 160 End Station Peter H. Rose and his NV10 Ion Implanter almost single-handedly transformed ion implantation - shooting high-speed atoms into a semiconductor surface.

Ion implantation, yesterday and today by Peter H. Rose
NV10-160 High Voltage Power Supply
NV10-160 End Station   NV10-160 HV Power Supply
NV10-160- Console
The Ion Implanter - An attempt to display and describe the major components of a high current ion implanter.

An Introduction to Plasma Source Ion Implantation - University of Wisconsin - Madison

Ion Implantation Machines - Russell Gwilliam - Director of Technology Surrey Ion Beam Centre
NV10-160 Gas Box
NV10-160 Console   NV10-160 Gas Box
 

Semiconductor History 

 

HISTORY of ION IMPLANTATION in SEMICONDUCTORS

History of Ion Implanter and Its Future Perspective - Masayasu TANJYO and Masao NAITO

The First Transistor Invented in 1947

Technology Timeline - A moment in AT&T Labs History.

History of Innovation Texas Instruments Incorporated

Chronology of Events in the History of Microcomputers - Ken Polsson

The Transistor Museum - Dedicated to Preserving the History of the Greatest Invention of the 20th Century.

The Chip History Center is dedicated to preserving that history for future generations.

The History of SEN - The Implant Company

Semiconductor History 

The National Museum of American History's Chip Collection consists of individual donations of objects, images and documentation that traces the history of integrated circuits.

Intel Museum Home - Explore the pages of this site and interact with our Web  movies to learn more about the museum and computer chips.

History of transistor - From vacuum tube triode to an integrated circuit. The Nobel Foundation

History of Semiconductor - Hong Xiao

 
 

 


Semiconductor Processes


Simulation of Ion Implantation for ULSI Technology - Andreas Hössinger - Institute for Microelectronics - Austria

Ion Implant Mechanics  - Philip D. Rack implant-1.pdf   implant-2.pdf

Semiconductor Manufacturing: An Overview

Simulation of Silicon Processing Silicon chips are prepared by an elaborate sequence of processing steps applied to a silicon wafer..

Semiconductor Processes

Integrated Circuits: Process, Device & Circuit Design with Relevant Links maintained by Dr. Zhou Xing,  Nanyang University,  Singapore

40 Inventive Principles in Microelectronics  By: Gennady Retseptor


Java Applets

Educational applets in Semiconductor Devices  The Semiconductor Applet Service website is no longer available to the public.

Building A Transistor - Explore how an individual Field Effect (FET) transistor is fabricated on a silicon wafer simultaneously with millions of its neighbors. 

Visit the collection of Interactive Java Tutorials.

Doping of Semiconductors by Ion Implantation - Pennsylvania State University

Java Applets

 


Semiconductor References

Semiconductor Glossary  -  key terms and concepts in the area of semiconductor materials, manufacturing, and devices.

Britannica.com  - searching - Semiconductors

Boin's Semiconductor Glossary and Links

Parameters of semiconductor compounds

Ion implantation - From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

www.siliconfareast.com is one of the world's most comprehensive references on semiconductor manufacturing.

Semiconductor Materials Characteristics and Properties by Ioffe Institute

Ion implantation: Definition from Answers.com

SEMATECH  -  Acronyms and Abbreviations

 

Semiconductor References



Semiconductor Physics

Welcome to this basic tour of semiconductor physics - The Nobel Foundation

Principles of Semiconductor Devices - The goal of this text is to provide the basic principles of common semiconductor devices, with a special focus on Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor Field-Effect-Transistors (MOSFETs).

Basic Semiconductor Theory - International Rectifier Corp.

Interactive Physics Modules are a series of interactive pages that cover Matter, Electricity and Magnetism, Energy, and Fusion

Silicon, Circuits, and the Digital Revolution - Curtsey of George Watson and the Dept.of Physics and Astronomy Univ.of Delaware. Lithography Links

Britney Spears' Guide to Semiconductor Physics -  It is a little known fact, that Ms Spears is an expert in semiconductor physics. 

Physics 2000 - An interactive journey through modern physics.

Advances in Ion Implantation Modeling for Doping of Semiconductors - SILVACO

 

Semiconductor Physics

 

 
 


Surface Analysis

Sims Wafer

Surface Analysis

Ion Implantation

Surface Analysis Tutorials curtsey of Charles Evans & Associates

SIMS Links - Listing of sites where Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry is a primary focus.

How to make Silicon - Wacker Siltronic Web Presentation

Sims Links and Tutorials - North Carolina State University 



Ion Beams

Ion Beams

Physics of Beams

Ion Beam Laboratory

World of Beams - an educational site sponsored by the Center for Beam Physics. Part of The Accelerator and Fusion Research Division at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory.

American Physical Society - The Division of Physics of Beams - Promotes research and development in the science of beams;

Introduction to Ion Beams and Materials Engineering - Fabrication Services - NCSU

Introduction to Solid-State Devices and Power Supplies.

Ion Beam Laboratory -We study the interaction of energetic ions with solid to understand the mechanisms leading to electronic excitations.

Charged Particle Beams - Stanley Humphries 

The Plasma Applications Group is part of the Ion Beam Technology Program. - Ernest Orlando Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory - undergoing a major update

Surface Hardening by Ion Implantation - Primary author: Ewart Woolley  Source: Materials World, Vol. 5 no. 10 Sept. 1997.

Pictures of ion beams - Albion Systems



Ion Sources

Ion Sources

LBL labs

 

 

Ion Sources - Many different makes and models.

Ion Sources and Electron Guns - principles and operation of basic lepton and hadron sources commonly used in accelerators. 

Ion sources from National Electrostatics Corp. are used to produce a full range of positive and negative ion beam species.

The constricted plasma source utilizes a special form of a dc glow discharge - LBL labs.

Colutron Research Corporation has two small Ion Gun systems to offer. Each Gun includes an ion source assembly, heat sink, acceleration and focusing system, vertical deflection

SemEquip, Inc. is a technology leader in the development of ion implantation systems and advanced ion source materials for the manufacture of logic and memory chips.



Plasmas

Plasmas - the Fourth State of Matter

The Plasma State of Matter

WebElements links to Electronic information. This page contains links to electronic data for the first 112 elements.

Plasma Science and Technology Comprehensive coverage of all plasma science and technology with site links worldwide.

Virtual DIII–D Tokamak

Plasma on the Internet - Plasma Laboratory - Weizmann Institute of Science

The Coalition for Plasma Science is a group of institutions, organizations, and companies joining forces to increase awareness and understanding of plasma science.- Addational Links

Plasmas



Mass Analyzers

Ion Beam Analysis (IBA) is based on the interaction, at both the atomic and the nuclear level, between accelerated charged particles and the bombarded material.

Mass Analyzers


The Faraday Cup

32-channel Faraday cup array

The Faraday Cup

NEC Faraday Cups

What is a Faraday Cup?

About Faraday Cups

32-channel Faraday cup array

The Faraday Cup



Vacuum Systems

MFC

Vacuum Systems

Vacuum Pumps

Vacuum Technology Page and lists of suppliers of Vacuum Related Equipment - Roy Schmaus 

A Short History of Vacuum Terminology and Technology  

A Complete Beginner's Guide to Vacuum History, Terminology, & Technology

Association of Vacuum Equipment Manufacturers - AVEM a Gateway to the Vacuum Industry!

World Wide Vacuum

Ion Implant Animation - by Sapto Susilo a graduate student at ASU for Microelectronic Technology. (download and run locally)



Control Systems

Control Engineering Virtual Library  Department of Electrical Engineering > University of Cambridge > Control Systems Research Group

Signals, Systems, and Control Demonstrations Resource of applets and interactive lectures dedicated the control theory from the Johns Hopkins University.

Sensors Web Portal Inc. was registered in 2001 (Canada) in order to host the biggest Internet specialized recourse devoted to sensors, transducers and sensor instrumentation.

Control Systems

 


 

Ion Implanter Manufacturers

Axcelis Technologies 

A typical ion implanter

Sumitomo Eaton Nova



 

Applied Materials, Inc Ion Implanter 
Advanced Ion Beam Technology, Inc.  
   
NISSIN ION EQUIPMENT  

 

Related Manufacturers

Therma-Wave manufactures the Therma-Probe (TM) ion implant monitoring system and the Opti-Probe (TM).

SI-TECH Stocks an inventory of silicon wafers in a wide variety of specifications to meet your requirements.

Buckley Systems is a leading manufacturer of precision electromagnets, ion beam physics hardware and high vacuum equipment used in the semiconductor ion implant industry, laboratory research and  particle accelerators.

Charles Evans & Associates  Here you will find information about surface analysis techniques and instrumentation used for the characterization of materials in the semiconductor and other industries, and very good tutorials.

Sims server Certain portions of this server are interactive, allowing scientists to discuss various aspects of SIMS including methods of analysis and instrumental repairs.

Semiconductor-technology.com - providing world-class controlled circulation magazines, Internet reference portals and business conferences and forums.

Implant Sciences Corporation has been providing high quality ion implant services for over ten years. Currently, we have nine implanters in our modern 20,000 square foot facility.  - The Ion Implantation Process

Innovion  -  The highest quality wafer ion implantation foundry services.

Silvaco International Developers of the Virtual Wafer Fab.

ISE Integrated Systems Engineering:, Process Simulation, Device Simulation, Mixed-Mode Device and Circuit Simulation.

Scientific Instrument Services, Inc. Supplies and Services for Mass Spectrometers, Gas Chromatographs and Liquid Chromatographs

MOSIS VLSI Fabrication Service a low-cost prototyping and small volume production service for custom and semi-custom VLSI circuit development.

Semiconductor Equipment Showroom - Simulations of actual semiconductor machines, e-try.com

Capovani Brothers Inc. Equipment for Science and Industry

Cleanroom Consulting - Cleanrooms Contamination Control Expertise Contact Dan C. Milholland who is nationally recognized for his expertise in HEPA / ULPA filter testing and cleanroom contamination control.

El-Mul - Nanotubes and Detection Solutions. is developing MWCNT high brightness electron sources coupled to ultra fast detectors for the Next Generation Lithography and Metrology (NGL / NGM) tools.

Professional Microanalysis Services - Semiconductor patent analysis and technical consulting services.

Manufacturing - Ion Implantation from Semiconductor-Manufacturing.net - Your Guide to Semiconductor Manufacturing on the Web.

CAE Online - A marketplace for used, refurbished, and surplus semiconductor manufacturing equipment.

RMG and Associates  -  Semiconductor Consulting and Expert Witness Services  Principal : Ron Maltiel

asaro consulting - Providing ion implantation Troubleshooting, Maintenance, Installation, and Training services

Albion Systems - Design of ion beam components - Ion sources - Magnets for beam analysis and formation

Complete Ions  - We have a specialized engineering team collected from the three main implanter manufacturers that allows us to offer you complete confidence and peace of mind for all your machine requirements.

 



Universities Universities

 

The Ion Beam Analytical Facility is one of the most successful research facilities at Cornell University.

Dresden University of Technology Department of Physics

The Semiconductor Subway (MIT) provides links to all manner of semiconductor and microsystems related information, including fabrication facilities, research activities, standards work, etc.

The Center for Solid State Science is an interdisciplinary research center in the College of Liberal Arts and Sciences at Arizona State University.

The Solid-State Electronics Research at Michigan is at the forefront of research in microelectronics and optoelectronics with major thrusts in integrated sensors, automated semiconductor manufacturing, compound semiconductor materials, ultra-high-speed microwave and millimeter-wave devices, optoelectronic devices, and monolithic integrated circuits.

The Michigan Ion Beam Laboratory for Surface Modification and Analysis

The Stanford Nanofabrication Facility encompasses a 10,500 sq. ft. class 100 clean room and dedicated space designed specifically to support state-of-the-art processing.

The Stanford INTEGRATED CIRCUITS LABORATORY

Theory and Fabrication of Integrated Circuits University of Illinois

Chalmers University of Technology Department of Solid State Electronics

The Electronics Materials Group is a research group in the department of Metallurgical Engineering and Materials Science at the University of Toronto.

Department of Electrical Engineering at the University of Edinburgh, Scotland

The Ion Implantation / Surface Analysis Lab is in the Department of Materials Science at the University of Connecticut. The laboratory's equipment includes a Varian CS-3000 ion implanter.

The Institute of Electronic Structure and Laser is one of the seven institutes which comprise FORTH. IESL is located on the grounds of FORTH in Crete, Greece

University of Cambridge, Cavendish Laboratory The Semiconductor Physics group investigates fundamental electronic phenomena using advanced, often unique, semiconductor structures.

Materials Science and Metallurgy, University of Cambridge

Notre Dame Microelectronics Lab The Department of Electrical Engineering at the University of Notre Dame supports extensive facilities for the fabrication and testing of electronic materials and devices with size scales down to the nanometer range and temperatures to 300 mK.

Electronic Structure Group, Department of Physics, Boston University, We perform interdisciplinary research on the electronic properties of novel materials that are of scientific and technological importance.

Plasma Applications Laboratory, The University of Texas at Dallas

Ion Beam Laboratory at the University of Virginia -We study the interaction of energetic ions with solid to understand the mechanisms leading to electronic excitations and how these excitations evolve and lead to the emission of light (luminescence), electrons, radiation, atoms and molecules (sputtering), and to radiation damage, chemical changes or heat.

Microelectronic Systems -- University of Tennessee Custom and semicustom integrated circuits as well as printed circuit boardsIon Implantation and multi-chip modules can be designed using the extensive set of CAD software tools.

The ACMOS group at USC's Information Sciences Institute does research into low power CMOS circuits

The Electronics Materials Group is a research group in the department of Metallurgical Engineering and Materials Science at the University of Toronto.

The Solid-State Electronics Research at Michigan is at the forefront of research in microelectronics and optoelectronics with major thrusts in integrated sensors, automated semiconductor manufacturing, compound semiconductor materials, ultra-high-speed microwave and millimeter-wave devices, optoelectronic devices, and monolithic integrated circuits.

The Center for Solid State Science is an interdisciplinary research center in the College of Liberal Arts and Sciences at Arizona State University.

Timothy J. Hickey Professor - Professor of Computer Science - Introduction to Computers Chips

Silicon Processing Laboratory - Links - Colorado School of Mines

Ion Implantation and Ion Beam Analysis Current research includes ion beam synthesis of compounds, control of implantation profiles by multiple ion implants and ion beam mixing of quantum wells for the fabrication of opto-electronic devices. University of Surrey.

Semiconductor Physics Group University of Cambridge, Cavendish Laboratory

Department of Electronic Materials Engineering, located at the Australian National University in Canberra

The Department of Electronic Materials Engineering - Institute of Advanced Studies at the Australian National University.

Plasma Laboratory -  Department of Physics & Materials Science - City University of Hong Kong

Ion Beam Surface Engineering - This electronic brochure highlights our capabilities and activities in the area of Ion Beam Surface Engineering. Southwest Research Institute

School of Electrical & Electronic Engineering - TCAD: Process and Device Simulation

University of Hawaii at Manoa - Application-Specific Integrated Circuits, which are a type of silicon integrated circuit.

University at Albany - Ion Implantation

San Jose State University - Materials Engineering  - Methods of Thin Film Deposition - Related Links.

National University of Singapore - Department of Physics - General Semiconductor Links

North Carolina State University - Analytical Instrumentation Facility

CalTech - Library Services


Publications 

Publications

Elsevier Publication Facilities A general internet catalogue facility.

IBM Research CyberJournal It contains publications and technical reports of the IBM Research community.

Science & Engineering Library University of Minnesota

Non Classified Technology Transfers This list is updated at the end of each month by Sematech.

IBM Technical  Journals  

Literature and Articles from Charles Evans & Associates The following is a collection of literature and recent articles written by, or collaborated on, by our researchers.

 IBM Journals of Research and Development

Technical Publications - Varian

Wafer Charging Monitors Publications

Ejournal Search Engine for Engineering Journals

Evans Analytical Group - Articles and Papers

Accelerators and Beams: Tools of Discovery and Innovation - The brochure was edited by Ernie Malamud.

SEMATECH  Technical Publications - The technical publications provided on this website are available for general public use

 



Organizations Organizations

The Fusor Research Consortium - This site is dedicated to a global discussion of fusion energy

The Silicon Valley Web Directory is a hierarchical index and directory with its own search engine to over 5,500 world wide websites about Silicon Valley and the computer industry.

Fabless Semiconductor Association (FSA) Provide interactive forums for the mutual benefit of all FSA Members.

Semiconductor Industry Association (SIA) We represent 85% of the U.S. based chip makers.

Asian Technology Information Program (ATIP)'s project on Flat Panel Display Technology

The Semiconductor Research Corporation is a consortium of more than 65 companies and government agencies. The SRC receives over 1000 publications annually.

SEMI (Semiconductor Equipment and Materials Internation) is an international trade association that represents semiconductor and flat panel display equipment and materials suppliers.

American Vacuum Society The (AVS) is a volunteer-based, non-profit organization dedicated to advancing the science and technology of vacuum, materials, surfaces, interfaces, thin films, and plasmas, and to providing a variety of educational opportunities.

SEMATECH is a consortium of American semiconductor manufacturers working with government and academia to sponsor and conduct research aimed at assuring leadership in semiconductor manufacturing technology for the U.S. semiconductor industry.

The Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) is the world's largest technical professional society.

MCNC provides technologies that bridge the worlds of science and commerce, proving concepts and transferring research ideas into the marketplace.

National Electronics Manufacturing Initiative Home Page (NEMI)

Semiconductor Physics Research Center (SPRC) is one of 13 centers of excellence designated by the Korea Science and Engineering Foundation (KOSEF) for the first time in 1990.

The Microelectronics Development Laboratory (MDL) at Sandia National Laboratories is a world-class facility dedicated to providing the microelectronics research and engineering capabilities to support industry, government, and other programs of national interest.

Canadian Microelectronics Corporation (CMC) is a not-for-profit organization established in 1984 to provide industrial microelectronic technologies to Canadian universities.

Semiconductor Fabtech - Sets the gold standard as the technical review of IC Manufacturing trends and technologies.

Semiconductor Safety Association - A Worldwide Organization for Safety, Health and Environmental Professionals

Fabtech - sets the gold standard as the technical review of IC Manufacturing trends and technologies.

Institute for Semiconductor Physics - Catalyze innovative developments in the national and European electronics industries.

International Microelectronics and Packaging Society

Taiwan Semiconductor Industry Assosiation

(ASEMEP) Association of Semiconductor and Electronics Manufacturing Engineers of the Philippines

The Semiconductor Electronics Division within the Electronics and Electrical Engineering Laboratory at NIST. provides leadership in developing the semiconductor measurement infrastructure essential to improving U.S. economic competitiveness.

Scirus scientific Search Engine is the most comprehensive science-specific search engine on the Internet. Driven by the latest search engine technology.

Resources  -  The Electrical Manufacturing & Coil Winding Association

MRS - Materials Research Society

ECS - The Electrochemical Society  The society for solid-state and electrochemical science and technology

DMA - Dayton Microcomputer Association - Dealing with all aspects of computing.

The International SIMS Society is a non-profit community of SIMS scientists, engineers, educators, researchers, companies, institutions, SIMS support personnel, and others involved in secondary ion mass spectrometry. Links Related to Semiconductor Characterization

The International Technology Roadmap for Semiconductors, known throughout the world as the ITRS

EMCWA - The Electrical Manufacturing & Coil Winding Association - Resources

SPIRIT - support of public and industrial research using ion beam technology

ICTcenter.org at Springfield Technical Community College - Links and Resources

 


 

Magazines - News - Forums News

Solid State Technology

Clean Rooms Magazine Monthly news and product briefs for Clean Rooms.

Semiconductor Related News Groups Discussions of semiconductor and optoelectronic issues.

European Semiconductor Dedicated to the  microchip production industry.

Computer Magazines - Top 100 Computer Magazines.

Industry news brought to you on a regular basis by Fabtech

Cleanroom technology magazine is published six times a year and is the only European magazine aimed at cleanroom users. Its aim is to offer a unique opportunity to reach valuable readers across Europe in all cleanroom-related industries.

Semiconductor Online - The premier Internet source of useful and timely information about semiconductoronline manufacturing.

Silicon Strategies is a strategic information and business portal of the Electronics Design and Technology News.

The ElectronicsEE.com  and  OPTICS.NET websites are dedicated to promoting and advancing science, technology and business opportunities.

SEMI's Home Page Semiconductor industry related articles, market information, and technical updates.

INFRASTRUCTURE is the leading source for information on the Semiconductor, Semiconductor Equipment and Flat Panel Display Industries.

Electronic Trend Publications You will find a list of our most recent off-the-shelf market research reports.

HTE Research is an internationally-oriented management consulting and market research company with a focus on the semiconductor and PC-related industries.

InsideChips Ventures is the industry's premier analysis source for emerging chip companies (fabless, IP, design houses) and technologies.

Electronics.ca Publications is the portal to essential market and technology information for the global Electronics Industry.


 

 

Home Pages Home Pages

Charles Hill's home page- Engineer in charge of the Linacs Operation and Pre-accelerators.CERN

Tom Duffey's WWW Links - Senior Technician, High Temperature Components Group.

Michael Lieberman -Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Sciences University of California at Berkeley.

Atomcool Home Page- Dr.Randall G. Hulet, Department of Physics at Rice University.

Dr Gerard M Blair- Senior Lecturer in the Department of Electrical Engineering at the University of Edinburgh.

Anthony J. Walton is a Reader in the Department of Electrical Engineering at the University of Edinburgh

Mister Transistor -Andrew Wylie, London, England. Collecter of old transistors.

Andreas Tillmann - This linkpage was created for fast and easy access to websites of companies, organizations and universities involved in semiconductor research and development.

Reference Shelf for Particle-Solid Interactions - This site contains information useful for researchers in the field of interactions of ions, electrons, and energetic photons with solids. Maintained by Raúl Baragiola, University of Virginia

James F. Zieglers The home page for the Stopping and Range of Ions in Matter

Mr. Fusion - collection of random links regarding fusion, IEC and other related stuff.

Gabriel Braunstein - Associate Professor  - Department of Physics  - University of Central Florida -  Useful Links

Hartmut S. Leipner  - Ion Implantation

 Prof. Stacy Gleixner - Professor of Biomedical, Chemical, and Materials Engineering - San Jose State University

Janusz A. Staryk - Professor of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, at Ohio University - VLSI Design Course and Design of Digital Circuits.

Timothy J. Hickey - Professor of Computer Science - Brandeis University


 


Images Images

Circoit Diagram for Colutron ion beam gun

Chip Shots:

BF3 Spectra

A Collage of Porous Silicon Images.

Eaton Semiconductor Equipment Operations Line of Implantation Equipment

Sandia National Laboratories Image Gallery

LBNL Image Library - Collections are grouped into hierarchical subcollections roughly by subject to provide smaller groups of images to view at one time.

The Chip Shots Collection

Bell Labs images of Ultrasmall Transistors

Ion Implantation Facility  - Naval Reasearch Lab

400 keV Ion Implanter

Ion Implanter Console

The RIKEN heavy-ion accelerator facility consists of a main accelerator of a K540 ring cyclotron and its injectors of a heavy-ion linac (RILAC) and a K70 AVF cyclotron

High Intensity Heavy Ion Injector T-5010 - 10 mA, 50 keV heavy ion. injector T-5010 is intended for use in isotope separators.



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This page is sponsored by Case Technology since 7/29/1996. 

Updated and all links verified 2/16/2014.



Counter History
  ( I finally lost my "web counter" afer 18 years).  7/29/1996 to 11/22/2014

144,000     1-1-2005

157,000     7-11-2005

168,500     1-1-2006

192,000    1-1-2007

212,500    1-1-2008

238,500    11-10-2009

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