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Ion Implantation

Started - 7/29/1996
Updated - 11/10/2017
Ion implantation is used to alter the surface properties of semiconductor materials.  


Semiconductor Tutorials

 Semiconductor Tutorials - American Microsemiconductor, Inc

A semiconductor is a material that is an insulator at very low temperature. - From Wikipedia.

Ion Implantation 101 - Applied Materials

Microelectronic Processing and Fabrication
- APlusPhysics

Accelerators for Society  - Accelerators in various forms are used for a wide range of tasks in the production or preparation of many different end products.

How Semiconductors Work

Semiconductor Tutorials


Wafer Disk


Ion Implantation - General Principles -

Ion Implantation - Rochester Institute of Technology

Ion Implantation - University of California, Berkeley The complete set of Lectures

Principles of Ion Implant Implant Mechanics - The University of Tennessee

Lecture 5 Ion Implantation  - Georgia Tech

The NV10 Ion Implanter
NV10- 160 End Station High Voltage Engineering shipped the first commercial Ion Implanter, built in 1965 by Peter H. Rose

Ion implantation, yesterday and today by Peter H. Rose
NV10-160 High Voltage Power Supply
NV10-160 End Station   NV10-160 HV Power Supply
NV10-160- Console
The Ion Implanter - An attempt to display and describe the major components of a high current ion implanter.

An Introduction to Plasma Source Ion Implantation - University of Wisconsin - Madison
NV10-160 Gas Box
NV10-160 Console   NV10-160 Gas Box

Semiconductor History 


History of Ion Implanter and Its Future Perspective - Masayasu TANJYO and Masao NAITO

The First Transistor Invented in 1947

History of Innovation Texas Instruments Incorporated

Chronology of Events in the History of Microcomputers - Ken Polsson

The Transistor Museum - Dedicated to Preserving the History of the Greatest Invention of the 20th Century.

The Chip History Center is dedicated to preserving that history for future generations.

The History of SEN - The Implant Company

Semiconductor History 

The National Museum of American History's Chip Collection consists of individual donations of objects, images and documentation that traces the history of integrated circuits.

Intel Museum Home - Explore the pages of this site and interact with our Web  movies to learn more about the museum and computer chips.

History of transistor - From vacuum tube triode to an integrated circuit. The Nobel Foundation


Semiconductor Processes

Simulation of Ion Implantation for ULSI Technology - Andreas Hössinger - Institute for Microelectronics - Austria

Inside Bell Labs - Where the Future is Being Built

Integrated Circuits: Process, by Dr. Zhou Xing,  Nanyang University,  Singapore

40 Inventive Principles in Microelectronics  By: Gennady Retseptor

Semiconductor Processes

Java Applets

Educational applets in Semiconductor Devices  The Semiconductor Applet Service website is no longer available to the public.


Doping of Semiconductors by Ion Implantation - Pennsylvania State University

Java Applets


Semiconductor References

Semiconductor Physics

Welcome to this basic tour of semiconductor physics - The Nobel Foundation

Principles of Semiconductor Devices - The goal of this text is to provide the basic principles of common semiconductor devices, with a special focus on Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor Field-Effect-Transistors (MOSFETs).

Basic Semiconductor Theory - International Rectifier Corp.

Interactive Physics Modules are a series of interactive pages that cover Matter, Electricity and Magnetism, Energy, and Fusion

Silicon, Circuits, and the Digital Revolution - Curtsey of George Watson and the Dept.of Physics and Astronomy Univ.of Delaware. Lithography Links

Britney Spears' Guide to Semiconductor Physics -  It is a little known fact, that Ms Spears is an expert in semiconductor physics. 

Physics 2000 - An interactive journey through modern physics.

Advances in Ion Implantation Modeling for Doping of Semiconductors - SILVACO


Semiconductor Physics



Surface Analysis

Sims Wafer

Surface Analysis

Ion Implantation

Surface Analysis Tutorials curtsey of Charles Evans & Associates

SIMS Links - Listing of sites where Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry is a primary focus.

Sims Links and Tutorials - North Carolina State University 

Ion Beams

Ion Beams

Physics of Beams

Ion Beam Laboratory

American Physical Society - The Division of Physics of Beams - Promotes research and development in the science of beams;

Introduction to Solid-State Devices and Power Supplies.

Ion Beam Laboratory -We study the interaction of energetic ions with solid to understand the mechanisms leading to electronic excitations.

Charged Particle Beams - Stanley Humphries 

The Plasma Applications Group is part of the Ion Beam Technology Program. - Ernest Orlando Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory - undergoing a major update

Pictures of ion beams - Albion Systems

Laboratory of Ion Beam Applications - Institute of Nuclear Research of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences

Ion Sources

Ion Sources

LBL labs



Ion Sources Technology - Many different makes and models.

Ion Sources and Electron Guns - principles and operation of basic lepton and hadron sources commonly used in accelerators. 

Ion sources from National Electrostatics Corp. are used to produce a full range of positive and negative ion beam species.

Ion Sources and beams - LBL labs.

Colutron Research Corporation has two small Ion Gun systems to offer. Each Gun includes an ion source assembly, heat sink, acceleration and focusing system, vertical deflection



Plasmas - the Fourth State of Matter

The Plasma State of Matter

WebElements links to Electronic information. This page contains links to electronic data for the first 112 elements.

Plasma Science and Technology Comprehensive coverage of all plasma science and technology with site links worldwide.

Virtual DIII–D Tokamak

Plasma on the Internet - Plasma Laboratory - Weizmann Institute of Science

The Coalition for Plasma Science is a group of institutions, organizations, and companies joining forces to increase awareness and understanding of plasma science.- Addational Links


Mass Analyzers

The Ion Beam Analysis Research Laboratory offers high quality capabilities in materials analysis and fabrication that are unique to New Zealand

Mass Analyzers

The Faraday Cup

32-channel Faraday cup array

The Faraday Cup

NEC Faraday Cups

What is a Faraday Cup?

32-channel Faraday cup array

Faraday Cup - From Wikipedia


The Faraday Cup

Vacuum Systems


Vacuum Systems

Vacuum Pumps

Vacuum Technology Page and lists of suppliers of Vacuum Related Equipment - Roy Schmaus 

A Short History of Vacuum Terminology and Technology  

Association of Vacuum Equipment Manufacturers - AVEM a Gateway to the Vacuum Industry!

World Wide Vacuum

Ion Implant Animation - by Sapto Susilo a graduate student at ASU for Microelectronic Technology. (download and run locally)

Control Systems

Control Systems Research Group Department of Electrical Engineering - University of Cambridge 

Signals, Systems, and Control Demonstrations Resource of applets and interactive lectures dedicated the control theory from the Johns Hopkins University.

Sensors Web Portal Inc. was registered in 2001 (Canada) in order to host the biggest Internet specialized recourse devoted to sensors, transducers and sensor instrumentation.

Control Systems



Ion Implanter Manufacturers

Axcelis Technologies 

A typical ion implanter

Sumitomo Eaton Nova


Applied Materials, Inc Ion Implanter 


Related Manufacturers

SI-TECH Stocks an inventory of silicon wafers in a wide variety of specifications to meet your requirements.

Buckley Systems is a leading manufacturer of precision electromagnets, ion beam physics hardware and high vacuum equipment used in the semiconductor ion implant industry, laboratory research and  particle accelerators.

Charles Evans & Associates  Here you will find information about surface analysis techniques and instrumentation used for the characterization of materials in the semiconductor and other industries, and very good tutorials.

Sims server Certain portions of this server are interactive, allowing scientists to discuss various aspects of SIMS including methods of analysis and instrumental repairs. - providing world-class controlled circulation magazines, Internet reference portals and business conferences and forums.

Implant Sciences Corporation has been providing high quality ion implant services for over ten years. Currently, we have nine implanters in our modern 20,000 square foot facility.  - The Ion Implantation

Silvaco International Developers of the Virtual Wafer Fab.

ISE Integrated Systems Engineering:, Process Simulation, Device Simulation, Mixed-Mode Device and Circuit Simulation.

Scientific Instrument Services, Inc. Supplies and Services for Mass Spectrometers, Gas Chromatographs and Liquid Chromatographs

MOSIS VLSI Fabrication Service a low-cost prototyping and small volume production service for custom and semi-custom VLSI circuit development.

Semiconductor Equipment Showroom - Simulations of actual semiconductor machines,

Capovani Brothers Inc. Equipment for Science and Industry

Cleanroom Consulting - Cleanrooms Contamination Control Expertise Contact Dan C. Milholland who is nationally recognized for his expertise in HEPA / ULPA filter testing and cleanroom contamination control.

El-Mul - Nanotubes and Detection Solutions. is developing MWCNT high brightness electron sources coupled to ultra fast detectors for the Next Generation Lithography and Metrology (NGL / NGM) tools.

Professional Microanalysis Services - Semiconductor patent analysis and technical consulting services.

Manufacturing - Ion Implantation from - Your Guide to Semiconductor Manufacturing on the Web.

CAE Online - A marketplace for used, refurbished, and surplus semiconductor manufacturing equipment.

RMG and Associates  -  Semiconductor Consulting and Expert Witness Services  Principal : Ron Maltiel

asaro consulting - Providing ion implantation Troubleshooting, Maintenance, Installation, and Training services

Albion Systems - Design of ion beam components - Ion sources - Magnets for beam analysis and formation

Complete Ions  - We have a specialized engineering team collected from the three main implanter manufacturers that allows us to offer you complete confidence and peace of mind for all your machine requirements.

CuttingEdge Ions provides specialty ion implant services for your research and small volume production needs.

Ion Beam Services (ibs) is an independent company providing ion implantation products and services.


Universities Universities


The Ion Beam Analytical Facility is one of the most successful research facilities at Cornell University.

Michigan State University - Making a Better Semiconductor

 Fabrication Services - The NCSU Nanofabrication Facility - NCSU

Dresden University of Technology Department of Physics

The Semiconductor Subway (MIT) provides links to all manner of semiconductor and microsystems related information, including fabrication facilities, research activities, standards work, etc.

The Center for Solid State Science is an interdisciplinary research center in the College of Liberal Arts and Sciences at Arizona State University.

The Solid-State Electronics Research at Michigan is at the forefront of research in microelectronics and optoelectronics with major thrusts in integrated sensors, automated semiconductor manufacturing, compound semiconductor materials, ultra-high-speed microwave and millimeter-wave devices, optoelectronic devices, and monolithic integrated circuits.

The Michigan Ion Beam Laboratory for Surface Modification and Analysis

The Stanford Nanofabrication Facility encompasses a 10,500 sq. ft. class 100 clean room and dedicated space designed specifically to support state-of-the-art processing.


Theory and Fabrication of Integrated Circuits University of Illinois

Chalmers University of Technology Department of Solid State Electronics

The Electronics Materials Group is a research group in the department of Metallurgical Engineering and Materials Science at the University of Toronto.

Department of Electrical Engineering at the University of Edinburgh, Scotland

The Ion Implantation / Surface Analysis Lab is in the Department of Materials Science at the University of Connecticut. The laboratory's equipment includes a Varian CS-3000 ion implanter.

The Institute of Electronic Structure and Laser is one of the seven institutes which comprise FORTH. IESL is located on the grounds of FORTH in Crete, Greece

University of Cambridge, Cavendish Laboratory The Semiconductor Physics group investigates fundamental electronic phenomena using advanced, often unique, semiconductor structures.

Materials Science and Metallurgy, University of Cambridge

Notre Dame Microelectronics Lab The Department of Electrical Engineering at the University of Notre Dame supports extensive facilities for the fabrication and testing of electronic materials and devices with size scales down to the nanometer range and temperatures to 300 mK.

Electronic Structure Group, Department of Physics, Boston University, We perform interdisciplinary research on the electronic properties of novel materials that are of scientific and technological importance.

Plasma Applications Laboratory, The University of Texas at Dallas

Ion Beam Laboratory at the University of Virginia -We study the interaction of energetic ions with solid to understand the mechanisms leading to electronic excitations and how these excitations evolve and lead to the emission of light (luminescence), electrons, radiation, atoms and molecules (sputtering), and to radiation damage, chemical changes or heat.

Microelectronic Systems -- University of Tennessee Custom and semicustom integrated circuits as well as printed circuit boardsIon Implantation and multi-chip modules can be designed using the extensive set of CAD software tools.

The ACMOS group at USC's Information Sciences Institute does research into low power CMOS circuits

The Electronics Materials Group is a research group in the department of Metallurgical Engineering and Materials Science at the University of Toronto.

The Solid-State Electronics Research at Michigan is at the forefront of research in microelectronics and optoelectronics with major thrusts in integrated sensors, automated semiconductor manufacturing, compound semiconductor materials, ultra-high-speed microwave and millimeter-wave devices, optoelectronic devices, and monolithic integrated circuits.

The Center for Solid State Science is an interdisciplinary research center in the College of Liberal Arts and Sciences at Arizona State University.

Timothy J. Hickey Professor - Professor of Computer Science - Introduction to Computers Chips

Silicon Processing Laboratory - and Links - Colorado School of Mines

Ion Implantation and Ion Beam Analysis Current research includes ion beam synthesis of compounds, control of implantation profiles by multiple ion implants and ion beam mixing of quantum wells for the fabrication of opto-electronic devices. University of Surrey.

Semiconductor Physics Group University of Cambridge, Cavendish Laboratory

Department of Electronic Materials Engineering, located at the Australian National University in Canberra

The Department of Electronic Materials Engineering - Institute of Advanced Studies at the Australian National University.

Plasma Laboratory -  Department of Physics & Materials Science - City University of Hong Kong

Ion Beam Surface Engineering - This electronic brochure highlights our capabilities and activities in the area of Ion Beam Surface Engineering. Southwest Research Institute

School of Electrical & Electronic Engineering - TCAD: Process and Device Simulation

University of Hawaii at Manoa - Application-Specific Integrated Circuits, which are a type of silicon integrated circuit.

University at Albany - Ion Implantation

San Jose State University - Materials Engineering  - Methods of Thin Film Deposition

National University of Singapore - Department of Physics - General Semiconductor Links

North Carolina State University - Analytical Instrumentation Facility

CalTech - Library Services



Elsevier Publication Facilities A general internet catalogue facility.

IBM Research CyberJournal It contains publications and technical reports of the IBM Research community.

Science & Engineering Library University of Minnesota

IBM Technical  Journals  

Literature and Articles from Charles Evans & Associates The following is a collection of literature and recent articles written by, or collaborated on, by our researchers.

 IBM Journals of Research and Development

Wafer Charging Monitors Publications

Evans Analytical Group - Articles and Papers

Accelerators and Beams: Tools of Discovery and Innovation - The brochure was edited by Ernie Malamud.

SEMATECH  Technical Publications - The technical publications provided on this website are available for general public use


Organizations Organizations

The Fusor Research Consortium - This site is dedicated to a global discussion of fusion energy

Fabless Semiconductor Association (FSA) Provide interactive forums for the mutual benefit of all FSA Members.

Semiconductor Industry Association (SIA) We represent 85% of the U.S. based chip makers.

Asian Technology Information Program (ATIP)'s project on Flat Panel Display Technology

The Semiconductor Research Corporation is a consortium of more than 65 companies and government agencies. The SRC receives over 1000 publications annually.

SEMI (Semiconductor Equipment and Materials Internation) is an international trade association that represents semiconductor and flat panel display equipment and materials suppliers.

American Vacuum Society The (AVS) is a volunteer-based, non-profit organization dedicated to advancing the science and technology of vacuum, materials, surfaces, interfaces, thin films, and plasmas, and to providing a variety of educational opportunities.

SEMATECH is a consortium of American semiconductor manufacturers working with government and academia to sponsor and conduct research aimed at assuring leadership in semiconductor manufacturing technology for the U.S. semiconductor industry.

The Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) is the world's largest technical professional society.

MCNC provides technologies that bridge the worlds of science and commerce, proving concepts and transferring research ideas into the marketplace.

National Electronics Manufacturing Initiative Home Page (NEMI)

Semiconductor Physics Research Center (SPRC) is one of 13 centers of excellence designated by the Korea Science and Engineering Foundation (KOSEF) for the first time in 1990.

The Microelectronics Development Laboratory (MDL) at Sandia National Laboratories is a world-class facility dedicated to providing the microelectronics research and engineering capabilities to support industry, government, and other programs of national interest.

Canadian Microelectronics Corporation (CMC) is a not-for-profit organization established in 1984 to provide industrial microelectronic technologies to Canadian universities.

Semiconductor Fabtech - Sets the gold standard as the technical review of IC Manufacturing trends and technologies.

Semiconductor Safety Association - A Worldwide Organization for Safety, Health and Environmental Professionals

Fabtech - sets the gold standard as the technical review of IC Manufacturing trends and technologies.

Institute for Semiconductor Physics - Catalyze innovative developments in the national and European electronics industries.

International Microelectronics and Packaging Society

Taiwan Semiconductor Industry Assosiation

The Semiconductor Electronics Division within the Electronics and Electrical Engineering Laboratory at NIST. provides leadership in developing the semiconductor measurement infrastructure essential to improving U.S. economic competitiveness.

Scirus scientific Search Engine is the most comprehensive science-specific search engine on the Internet. Driven by the latest search engine technology.

 The Electrical Manufacturing & Coil Winding Association

MRS - Materials Research Society

ECS - The Electrochemical Society  The society for solid-state and electrochemical science and technology

DMA - Dayton Microcomputer Association - Dealing with all aspects of computing.

The International SIMS Society is a non-profit community of SIMS scientists, engineers, educators, researchers, companies, institutions, SIMS support personnel, and others involved in secondary ion mass spectrometry. Links Related to Semiconductor Characterization

EMCWA - The Electrical Manufacturing & Coil Winding Association - Resources

SPIRIT - support of public and industrial research using ion beam technology

The Naval Research Laboratory: 75 Years of Materials Innovation




Magazines - News - Forums News

Solid State Technology

Clean Rooms Magazine Monthly news and product briefs for Clean Rooms.

European Semiconductor Dedicated to the  microchip production industry.

Computer Magazines - Top 100 Computer Magazines.

Industry news brought to you on a regular basis by Fabtech

Cleanroom technology magazine is published six times a year and is the only European magazine aimed at cleanroom users. Its aim is to offer a unique opportunity to reach valuable readers across Europe in all cleanroom-related industries.

Semiconductor Online - The premier Internet source of useful and timely information about semiconductoronline manufacturing.

Silicon Strategies is a strategic information and business portal of the Electronics Design and Technology News.

The  and  OPTICS.NET websites are dedicated to promoting and advancing science, technology and business opportunities.

SEMI's Home Page Semiconductor industry related articles, market information, and technical updates.

INFRASTRUCTURE is the leading source for information on the Semiconductor, Semiconductor Equipment and Flat Panel Display Industries.

Electronic Trend Publications You will find a list of our most recent off-the-shelf market research reports.

HTE Research is an internationally-oriented management consulting and market research company with a focus on the semiconductor and PC-related industries.

InsideChips Ventures is the industry's premier analysis source for emerging chip companies (fabless, IP, design houses) and technologies. Publications is the portal to essential market and technology information for the global Electronics Industry.



Home Pages Home Pages

Charles Hill's home page- Engineer in charge of the Linacs Operation and Pre-accelerators.CERN

Tom Duffey's WWW Links - Senior Technician, High Temperature Components Group.

Michael Lieberman -Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Sciences University of California at Berkeley.

Atomcool Home Page- Dr.Randall G. Hulet, Department of Physics at Rice University.

Dr Gerard M Blair- Senior Lecturer in the Department of Electrical Engineering at the University of Edinburgh.

Anthony J. Walton is a Reader in the Department of Electrical Engineering at the University of Edinburgh

Mister Transistor -Andrew Wylie, London, England. Collecter of old transistors.

Andreas Tillmann - This linkpage was created for fast and easy access to websites of companies, organizations and universities involved in semiconductor research and development.

Reference Shelf for Particle-Solid Interactions - This site contains information useful for researchers in the field of interactions of ions, electrons, and energetic photons with solids. Maintained by Raúl Baragiola, University of Virginia

James F. Zieglers The home page for the Stopping and Range of Ions in Matter

Mr. Fusion - collection of random links regarding fusion, IEC and other related stuff.

Gabriel Braunstein - Associate Professor  - Department of Physics  - University of Central Florida -  Useful Links

Hartmut S. Leipner  - Ion Implantation

Prof. Stacy Gleixner - Professor of Biomedical, Chemical, and Materials Engineering - San Jose State University

Janusz A. Staryk - Professor of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, at Ohio University - VLSI Design Course and Design of Digital Circuits.

Timothy J. Hickey - Professor of Computer Science - Brandeis University


Images Images

Circoit Diagram for Colutron ion beam gun

Chip Shots:

BF3 Spectra

A Collage of Porous Silicon Images.

Eaton Semiconductor Equipment Operations Line of Implantation Equipment

Sandia National Laboratories Image Gallery

LBNL Image Library - Collections are grouped into hierarchical subcollections roughly by subject to provide smaller groups of images to view at one time.

The Chip Shots Collection

Ion Implantation Facility  - Naval Reasearch Lab

400 keV Ion Implanter

The RIKEN heavy-ion accelerator facility consists of a main accelerator of a K540 ring cyclotron and its injectors of a heavy-ion linac (RILAC) and a K70 AVF cyclotron

High Intensity Heavy Ion Injector T-5010 - 10 mA, 50 keV heavy ion. injector T-5010 is intended for use in isotope separators.

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This page is sponsored by Case Technology since 7/29/1996. 

Updated and all links verified 11/10/2017.

Counter History
  ( I finally lost my "web counter" afer 18 years).  7/29/1996 to 11/22/2014

144,000     1-1-2005

157,000     7-11-2005

168,500     1-1-2006

192,000    1-1-2007

212,500    1-1-2008

238,500    11-10-2009

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